SYNTHESIS: To a solution of 3.9 g 1,4-dimethoxy-2-naphthaldehyde (see under 2C-G-N for the preparation) in 13.5 mL nitroethane there was added 0.7 g anhydrous ammonium acetate, and the mixture heated on the steam bath for 5 h. The deep orange reaction mixture was stripped of excess solvent under vacuum. The residue was a red oil that, upon dilution with two volumes MeOH, immediately set to orange crystals. This crude product (mp 115–118 °C) was recrystallized from 70 mL EtOH to yield, after filtering and air drying, 3.3 g of 1-(1,4-dimethoxy-2-naphthyl)-2-nitropropene as gold-orange crystals, with a mp of 121–123 °C. Recrystallization from MeOH gave a gold-colored product with a mp of 119–120 °C. Anal. (C15H15NO4) C,H,N.
A solution of LAH (50 mL of 1 M solution in THF) was cooled, under He, to 0 °C with an external ice-bath. With good stirring there was added 1.32 mL 100% H2SO4 dropwise, to minimize charring. This was followed by the addition of 3.12 g 1-(1,4-dimethoxy-2-naphthyl)-2-nitropropene in 40 mL anhydrous THF. After stirring for 1 h, the temperature was brought up to a gentle reflux on the steam bath for 0.5 h, and then all was cooled again to 0 °C. The excess hydride was destroyed by the cautious addition of 16 mL IPA followed by 6 mL 5% NaOH to give a white, filterable, granular character to the oxides, and to assure that the reaction mixture was basic. The reaction mixture was filtered, and the filter cake washed with additional THF. The combined filtrate and washes were stripped of solvent under vacuum providing 3.17 g of a deep amber oil. Without any further purification, this was distilled at 140–160 °C at 0.3 mm/Hg to give 1.25 g of a pale yellow oil. This was dissolved in 8 mL IPA, neutralized with 20 drops of concentrated HCl, and diluted with 60 mL anhydrous Et2O which was the point at which the solution became slightly turbid. After a few min, fine white crystals began to form, and these were eventually removed, washed with Et2O, and air dried to provide 1.28 g 1,4-dimethoxynaphthyl-2-isopropylamine hydrochloride (G-N) as the monohydrate salt. The mp was 205–206 °C. Even after 24 h drying at 100 °C under vacuum, the hydrate salt remained intact. Anal. (C15H20ClNO2aH2O) C,H.
EXTENSIONS AND COMMENTARY: The evaluation of this compound is not yet complete. An initial trial at the 2 milligram level showed neither central action, nor toxicity. It could be guessed from the activity of the two-carbon counterpart, that an active level will be found in the tens of milligrams area. But, as of the moment, this level is not known to anyone, anywhere, because no one has yet defined it. And when the potency is finally found out, the nature of the activity will also have been found out, all the result of a magical interaction of a virgin compound with a virgin psyche. At the immediate moment, the nature of G-N is not only unknown, it has not yet even been sculpted. There can be no more exciting area of research than this, anywhere in the sentient world.
This version of Book II of PiHKAL is based on the Erowid online version, originally transcribed by Simson Garfinkle and converted into HTML by Lamont Granquist. I drew also on “Tyrone Slothrop’s” (Unfinished) Review of PIHKAL to enumerate the many analogues mentioned in PiHKAL but not described at length. Still others remain to be added.
I have tried here to expunge any artifacts introduced by the earlier transcriptions and restore most of the typographic niceties found in the printed edition. I’ve also made minor changes to some chemical names in line with current nomenclature practice, and in the hope of aligning with more readers’ searches. Typically the change is little more than expanding a prefix and setting it in italics. The errata and changes page has further details.
“At the present time, restrictive laws are in force in the United States and it is very difficult for researchers to abide by the regulations which govern efforts to obtain legal approval to do work with these compounds in human beings.
“No one who is lacking legal authorization should attempt the synthesis of any of the compounds described in these files, with the intent to give them to man. To do so is to risk legal action which might lead to the tragic ruination of a life. It should also be noted that any person anywhere who experiments on himself, or on another human being, with any of the drugs described herein, without being familiar with that drug’s action and aware of the physical and/or mental disturbance or harm it might cause, is acting irresponsibly and immorally, whether or not he is doing so within the bounds of the law.”
Alexander T. Shulgin
The copyright for Book I of PiHKAL has been reserved in all forms and it may not be distributed. Book II of PiHKAL may be distributed for non-commercial reproduction provided that the introductory information, copyright notice, cautionary notice and ordering information remain attached.
PiHKAL is the extraordinary record of the authors’ years exploring the chemistry and transformational power of phenethylamines. This book belongs in the library of anyone seeking a rational, enlightened and candid perspective on psychedelic drugs.
Although Sasha and Ann have put Book II of PiHKAL in the public domain, available to anyone, I strongly encourage you to buy a copy. We owe them—and there’s still nothing quite like holding a real book in your hands.
PiHKAL (ISBN 0-9630096-0-5) is available for US$24.50 (plus $10 domestic first-class shipping) from Transform Press.Transform Press,