SYNTHESIS: To a solution of 14.0 g 4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenol (see the recipe for
To a mixture of 24.1 g N-methylformanilide and 27.3 g POCl3 that had been allowed to stand at room temperature until strongly red-colored (about 0.5 h) there was added 13.8 g solid 2,5-diethoxyanisole and the mixture was heated on the steam bath for 2 h. The black, thick reaction product was poured over chipped ice and, with continuous stirring, the color lightened and there was the formation of a yellowish powder. After a few h standing, this was removed by filtration and sucked as dry as possible. The 32 g of damp product showed the presence of isomeric contaminatiion by GC, and the aqueous mother liquor, upon extraction with CH2Cl2 and concentration, showed yet more aldehyde-like impurities. The isolated solids were recrystallized from 125 mL boiling MeOH giving 15.8 g yellowish crystals (wet weight) that still showed detectable impurities by GC. A second recrystallization from 100 mL boiling MeOH gave off-white fluffy crystals of 2,5-diethoxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde which weighed, after air drying, 8.5 g. The mp was 109–110 °C. The combined mother liquors from the two MeOH crystallizations were stripped of solvent, and the resulting solid mass crystallized again from MeOH to give a second crop of aldehyde, 5.7 g, with a mp of 110–111 °C. A solution of 1.0 g of this aldehyde and 0.7 g malononitrile in 40 mL warm absolute EtOH was treated with a few drops of triethylamine. In a minute or so, there was the formation of crystals. These were removed by filtration, washed with EtOH, and air dried, giving 0.6 g of 2,5-diethoxy-4-methoxybenzalmalononitrile as brilliant yellow crystals with a mp of 156.5–158 °C.
A solution of 6.7 g 2,5-diethoxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde in 21 g glacial acetic acid was treated with 3.1 g nitroethane and 1.93 g anhydrous ammonium acetate, and heated on the steam bath for 2.5 h. The addition of a small amount of H2O to the hot reaction mixture instituted crystallization of an orange product which, after the mixture had come to room temperature and stood for several h, was removed by filtration, H2O washed, and air dried. The product, 1-(2,5-diethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-nitropropene, was dull orange in color, weighed 3.0 g and had a mp of 84–86 °C. An analytical sample from toluene had a mp of 85–86 °C. Anal. (C14H19NO5) C,H.
To a gently refluxing suspension of 2.0 g LAH in 250 mL anhydrous Et2O under a He atmosphere, there was added 2.8 g 1-(2,5-diethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-nitropropene by allowing the condensing Et2O to drip into a shunted Soxhlet thimble containing the nitrostyrene. This effectively added a warm saturated solution of the nitrostyrene dropwise. The addition took 1 h and the refluxing was continued for an additional 6 h. The reaction mixture was brought down to ice-bath temperature, and the excess hydride was destroyed by the cautious addition of 150 mL 1.5 N H2SO4. When the aqueous and Et2O layers were finally clear, they were separated and 50 g of potassium sodium tartrate were dissolved in the aqueous fraction. Aqueous NaOH was then added until the pH was >9, and this was then extracted with 3×150 mL CH2Cl2. Removal of the solvent under vacuum produced 2.3 g of a clear white oil that was dissolved in 300 mL anhydrous Et2O and saturated with anhydrous HCl gas. At first the solution remained completely clear, and finally there was the start of the formation of fine white crystals. When the crystallization was complete, these solids were removed by filtration, Et2O washed, and air dried. There was thus obtained 2.2 g of 2,5-diethoxy-4-methoxyamphetamine hydrochloride (EME) with a mp of 162–164 °C with prior softening at 154 °C. Anal. (C14H24ClNO3) C,H,N.
EXTENSIONS AND COMMENTARY: This is another of the collection of all possible ethoxy homologues of
13 May 2016 · · Isomer Design
About PiHKAL · info
This version of Book II of PiHKAL is based on the Erowid online version, originally transcribed by Simson Garfinkle and converted into HTML by Lamont Granquist. I drew also on “Tyrone Slothrop’s” (Unfinished) Review of PIHKAL to enumerate the many analogues mentioned in PiHKAL but not described at length. Many, many others have since been added.
I have tried here to expunge any artifacts introduced by the earlier transcriptions and restore the typographic niceties found in the printed edition. I’ve also made minor changes to some chemical names in line with current nomenclature practice. Typically the change is little more than expanding a prefix or setting it in italics. The history page has further details.
“At the present time, restrictive laws are in force in the United States and it is very difficult for researchers to abide by the regulations which govern efforts to obtain legal approval to do work with these compounds in human beings.“No one who is lacking legal authorization should attempt the synthesis of any of the compounds described in these files, with the intent to give them to man. To do so is to risk legal action which might lead to the tragic ruination of a life. It should also be noted that any person anywhere who experiments on himself, or on another human being, with any of the drugs described herein, without being familiar with that drug’s action and aware of the physical and/or mental disturbance or harm it might cause, is acting irresponsibly and immorally, whether or not he is doing so within the bounds of the law.”
The copyright for Book I of PiHKAL has been reserved in all forms and it may not be distributed. Book II of PiHKAL may be distributed for non-commercial reproduction provided that the introductory information, copyright notice, cautionary notice and ordering information remain attached.
PiHKAL is the extraordinary record of the authors’ years exploring the chemistry and transformational power of phenethylamines. This book belongs in the library of anyone seeking a rational, enlightened and candid perspective on psychedelic drugs.
Though Sasha and Ann have put Book II of PiHKAL in the public domain, available to anyone, I strongly encourage you to buy a copy. We owe them — and there’s still nothing quite like holding a real book in your hands.
PiHKAL (ISBN 0-9630096-0-5) is available for US$24.50 (plus $10 domestic first-class shipping) from Transform Press.Transform Press,
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