SYNTHESIS: To a solution of 12.3 g 3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenol (see recipe for
A mixture of 10.9 g N-methylformanilide and 12.3 g POCl3 was allowed to stand at room temperature for 0.5 h producing a deep red claret color. There was then added 6.2 g 2,4-diethoxyanisole and the mixture was heated on the steam bath for 2 h. All was poured into 200 g chipped ice, and stirred mechanically. The dark viscous gummy oil gradually became increasingly granular and finally appeared as jade-green solids. These were removed by filtration and washed with H2O, giving a wet cake weighing 18 g and having a mp (from a porous plate) of 95.5–96.5 °C. The entire crop was recrystallized from 75 mL boiling MeOH which gave, after filtering, washing lightly with cold MeOH, and air drying, 5.4 g of 2,4-diethoxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde with a mp of 98–99 °C. A solution of 0.2 g of this aldehyde, and 0.3 g malononitrile in 2.0 mL warm EtOH was treated with a drop of triethylamine. There was an immediate generation of crystals which were removed by filtration, EtOH-washed, and dried to constant weight. The bright yellow needles of 2,4-diethoxy-5-methoxybenzalmalononitrile weighed 0.15 g and had a mp of 172–172.5 °C.
A solution of 5.0 g 2,4-diethoxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde in 16 g glacial acetic acid was treated with 2.7 g nitroethane followed by 1.7 g anhydrous ammonium acetate. The mixture was heated for 2.5 h on the steam bath, then removed and diluted with a equal volume of H2O. With cooling there was the generation of a heavy crop of orange crystals which was removed, washed with 50% acetic acid, and sucked as dry as possible. The product had a mp of 97–104 °C, and there was spectrographic evidence of some unreacted starting aldehyde. A small sample was recrystallized from boiling MeOH, with considerable loss, to give an analytical sample of 1-(2,4-diethoxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-2-nitropropene as orange-yellow crystals with a mp of 112–113 °C. Anal. (C14H19NO5) C,H. The unpurified first crop was employed in the following synthesis of the corresponding amphetamine.
To a gently refluxing suspension of 2.9 g LAH in 400 mL anhydrous Et2O under a He atmosphere, there was added 4.0 g of impure 1-(2,4-diethoxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-2-nitropropene by allowing the condensing ether to drip into a shunted Soxhlet thimble apparatus containing the nitrostyrene. This effectively added a warm saturated solution of the nitrostyrene dropwise over the course of 1 h. Refluxing was maintained for 5 h and the reaction mixture was cooled with an external ice bath with the stirring continued. The excess hydride was destroyed by the cautious addition of 400 mL of 1.5 N H2SO4. When the aqueous and Et2O layers were finally clear, they were separated, and 100 g of potassium sodium tartrate was dissolved in the aqueous fraction. Aqueous NaOH was then added until the pH was above 9, and this was then extracted with 3×150 mL CH2Cl2. Removal of the solvent under vacuum produced 2.7 g of a pale amber oil that was dissolved in 300 mL anhydrous Et2O and saturated with anhydrous HCl gas. After a few minutes delay, there commenced the separation of fine white crystals of 2,4-diethoxy-5-methoxyamphetamine hydrochloride (EEM). After the crystallization was complete, these were removed by filtration, washed with Et2O and air dried, providing 2.55 g of a fine white crystalline solid with mp 158–159 °C. Anal. (C14H24ClNO3) C,H,N.
EXTENSIONS AND COMMENTARY: This particular identity and arrangement of the alkoxy groups on the amphetamine molecule, EEM, is a totally unexplored molecule. It is reasonable to assume that it would be way down in potency, but there is no way of guessing what the nature of its activity might be at the dosage that would be active.
13 May 2016 · · Isomer Design
About PiHKAL · info
This version of Book II of PiHKAL is based on the Erowid online version, originally transcribed by Simson Garfinkle and converted into HTML by Lamont Granquist. I drew also on “Tyrone Slothrop’s” (Unfinished) Review of PIHKAL to enumerate the many analogues mentioned in PiHKAL but not described at length. Many, many others have since been added.
I have tried here to expunge any artifacts introduced by the earlier transcriptions and restore the typographic niceties found in the printed edition. I’ve also made minor changes to some chemical names in line with current nomenclature practice. Typically the change is little more than expanding a prefix or setting it in italics. The history page has further details.
“At the present time, restrictive laws are in force in the United States and it is very difficult for researchers to abide by the regulations which govern efforts to obtain legal approval to do work with these compounds in human beings.“No one who is lacking legal authorization should attempt the synthesis of any of the compounds described in these files, with the intent to give them to man. To do so is to risk legal action which might lead to the tragic ruination of a life. It should also be noted that any person anywhere who experiments on himself, or on another human being, with any of the drugs described herein, without being familiar with that drug’s action and aware of the physical and/or mental disturbance or harm it might cause, is acting irresponsibly and immorally, whether or not he is doing so within the bounds of the law.”
The copyright for Book I of PiHKAL has been reserved in all forms and it may not be distributed. Book II of PiHKAL may be distributed for non-commercial reproduction provided that the introductory information, copyright notice, cautionary notice and ordering information remain attached.
PiHKAL is the extraordinary record of the authors’ years exploring the chemistry and transformational power of phenethylamines. This book belongs in the library of anyone seeking a rational, enlightened and candid perspective on psychedelic drugs.
Though Sasha and Ann have put Book II of PiHKAL in the public domain, available to anyone, I strongly encourage you to buy a copy. We owe them — and there’s still nothing quite like holding a real book in your hands.
PiHKAL (ISBN 0-9630096-0-5) is available for US$24.50 (plus $10 domestic first-class shipping) from Transform Press.Transform Press,
Berkeley, CA 94701
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