SYNTHESIS: A solution of 8.4 g 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine base in 40 mL acetic acid was added dropwise over the course of 0.5 h to 43 mL of 50% nitric acid which was well stirred and cooled with an external ice bath. The resulting solution was quenched with ice water, made basic with aqueous NaOH, and extracted with a benzene-ether mixture. The residue that remained after the removal of the solvent was dissolved in dilute HCl which, upon evaporation of the H2O, yielded a nearly colorless residue. Recrystallization from an ethanol/ether mixture gave, after drying, 10.5 g of 2,5-dimethoxy-4-nitroamphetamine hydrochloride (DON) with a mp of 206–207 °C. The acetamide derivative melted at 166–168 °C. The formamide derivative was easily hydrolyzed with3 NHCl. And the R-isomer of DON hydrochloride had a mp of 231–232 °C.
DOSAGE: 3.0–4.5 mg.
DURATION: 8–15 h.
QUALITATIVE COMMENTS: (with 3.0 mg) “There was an amphetamine-like stimulation that was apparent an hour into it, and considerable anxiety. I had stomach cramps, but there were indications that there might be something hallucinogenic at a higher dose.”
(with 4.5 mg) “An enhancement of color perception, and some auditory distortion, that was still noticeable some eight hours into the experience. The visual changes were intense. I felt I was running a slight fever, and was restless, but there was almost no physical malaise. I was still somewhat wound up even at the 14th hour.”
EXTENSIONS AND COMMENTARY: These qualitative comments are not true quotations, but have been reconstructed from the published summaries of the human trials reported by several South American researchers. I have personally never tasted DON and have only these fragments from which to create a portrait of activity. A brief quotation, from a note published by these researchers in a bulletin that is restricted to forensic scientists serving law enforcement agencies, is certainly subject to a number of interpretations. It reads as follows: “This action [a strong stimulant action reminiscent of amphetamine] seems to reduce the incidence of insightful, and therefore potentially unpleasant experiences, and thus [DON seems likely] to appear on the market as an illicit recreational drug.” I must admit that I have tried, and I am still not able, to interpret this quotation.
This version of Book II of PiHKAL is based on the Erowid online version, originally transcribed by Simson Garfinkle and converted into HTML by Lamont Granquist. I drew also on “Tyrone Slothrop’s” (Unfinished) Review of PIHKAL to enumerate the many analogues mentioned in PiHKAL but not described at length. Still others remain to be added.
I have tried here to expunge any artifacts introduced by the earlier transcriptions and restore most of the typographic niceties found in the printed edition. I’ve also made minor changes to some chemical names in line with current nomenclature practice, and in the hope of aligning with more readers’ searches. Typically the change is little more than expanding a prefix and setting it in italics. The errata and changes page has further details.
“At the present time, restrictive laws are in force in the United States and it is very difficult for researchers to abide by the regulations which govern efforts to obtain legal approval to do work with these compounds in human beings.
“No one who is lacking legal authorization should attempt the synthesis of any of the compounds described in these files, with the intent to give them to man. To do so is to risk legal action which might lead to the tragic ruination of a life. It should also be noted that any person anywhere who experiments on himself, or on another human being, with any of the drugs described herein, without being familiar with that drug’s action and aware of the physical and/or mental disturbance or harm it might cause, is acting irresponsibly and immorally, whether or not he is doing so within the bounds of the law.”
Alexander T. Shulgin
The copyright for Book I of PiHKAL has been reserved in all forms and it may not be distributed. Book II of PiHKAL may be distributed for non-commercial reproduction provided that the introductory information, copyright notice, cautionary notice and ordering information remain attached.
PiHKAL is the extraordinary record of the authors’ years exploring the chemistry and transformational power of phenethylamines. This book belongs in the library of anyone seeking a rational, enlightened and candid perspective on psychedelic drugs.
Although Sasha and Ann have put Book II of PiHKAL in the public domain, available to anyone, I strongly encourage you to buy a copy. We owe them—and there’s still nothing quite like holding a real book in your hands.
PiHKAL (ISBN 0-9630096-0-5) is available for US$24.50 (plus $10 domestic first-class shipping) from Transform Press.Transform Press,