SYNTHESIS: To a well-stirred ice-cold suspension of 2.8 g p-dimethoxybenzene and 3.2 mL N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine in 100 mL petroleum ether under an inert atmosphere of He, there was added 13 mL of a 1.6 N solution of butyllithium in hexane. The suspended dimethoxybenzene became opaque and there was a pale yellow color generated. The reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature which converted it to light white solids. After an additional 0.5 h stirring, there was added, slowly, 3.6 g of di-tert-butyldisulfide. The yellow color deepened, the solids dissolved and, after 1 h, the color was a clear deep brown. This solution was poured into 100 mL dilute HCl and the organic phase was separated. The aqueous fraction was extracted with 3×75 mL CH2Cl2. The combined organic phases were washed with dilute aqueous NaOH, with H2O, and then stripped of solvents under vacuum. The residue was distilled at 95–105 °C at 0.5 mm/Hg to provide 3.7 g of 2,5-dimethoxyphenyl tert-butyl sulfide as a white, mobile liquid. Anal. (C12H18O2S) C,H. A solid derivative was found in the nitration product, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-tert-butylthio-1-nitrobenzene, which came from the addition of 0.11 mL of concentrated HNO3 to a solution of 0.23 g of the above sulfide in 5 mL ice cold acetic acid. Dilution with H2O provided yellow solids which, on recrystallization from MeOH, had a mp of 92–93 °C. Anal. (C12H17NO4S) C,H. Attempts to make either the picrate salt or the sulfonamide derivative were not satisfactory.
A mixture of 72 g POCl3 and 67 g N-methylformanilide was heated for 10 min on the steam bath. To this claret-colored solution was added 28 g of 2,5-dimethoxyphenyl tert-butyl sulfide, and the mixture heated for 10 min on the steam bath. This was then added to 1 L of H2O and stirred overnight. The residual brown oil was separated from the water mechanically, and treated with 150 mL boiling hexane. The hexane solution was decanted from some insoluble tars, and on cooling deposited a dark oil which did not crystallize. The remaining hexane was removed under vacuum and the residue combined with the above hexane-insoluble dark oil, and all distilled at 0.2 mm/Hg. An early fraction (70–110 °C) was largely N-methylformanilide and was discarded. Crude 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(tert-butylthio)benzaldehyde came over at 120–130 °C and weighed 12.0 g. This was never satisfactorily crystallized despite the successful formation of seed. It was a complex mixture by TLC, containing several components. It was used for the next step as the crude distilled fraction.
To a solution of 10 g impure 2,5-dimethoxy-(tert-butylthio)benzaldehyde in 75 mL of nitromethane there was added 1.0 g of anhydrous ammonium acetate, and the mixture was heated on the steam bath 1.5 h. Removal of the excess solvent/reagent under vacuum produced an orange oil that was (not surprisingly) complex by TLC and which would not crystallize. A hot hexane solution of this oil was allowed to slowly cool and stand at room temperature for several days, yielding a mixture of yellow crystals and a brown viscous syrup. The solids were separated and recrystallized from 40 mL MeOH to give 3.7 g 2,5-dimethoxy-4-tert-butylthio-β-nitrostyrene as fine lemon-yellow crystals, with a mp of 93–94 °C. A second crop of 1.4 g had a mp of 91–92 °C. Anal. (C14H19NO4S) C,H.
A solution of LAH (70 mL of a 1 M solution in THF) was cooled, under He, to 0 °C with an external ice bath. With good stirring there was added 2.1 mL 100% H2SO4 dropwise, over the course of 20 min. This was followed by the addition of 4.7 g 2,5-dimethoxy-4-tert-butylthio-β-nitrostyrene in 20 mL anhydrous THF. There was an immediate loss of color. After a few min further stirring, the mixture was allowed to come to room temperature, and the stirring was continued for 5 h. The excess hydride was destroyed by the cautious addition of 10 mL IPA followed by 6 mL 15% NaOH and finally 6 mL H2O. The loose white solids were removed by filtration, and the filter cake washed with THF. The filtrate and washes were combined and, after stripping off the solvent under vacuum, there was obtained 4.66 g of a pale yellow oil. Without any further purification, this was distilled at 0.2 mm/Hg. A first fraction came over at up to 120 °C and was a light colorless oil that was not identified. The correct product distilled at 130–160 °C as a pale yellow viscous oil that weighed 1.66 g. This was dissolved in 10 mL IPA, neutralized with 20 drops of concentrated HCl and diluted with 80 mL anhydrous Et2O. After standing a few min there was the spontaneous generation of white crystals of 2,5-dimethoxy-4-tert-butylthiophenethylamine hydrochloride (2C-T-9) which were removed by filtration, and air dried. The weight was 1.10 g.
DOSAGE: 60–100 mg.
DURATION: 12–18 h.
QUALITATIVE COMMENTS: (with 90 mg) “2C-T-9 tastes the way that old crank-case motor oil smells. I was up to something above a plus two at the third hour. Although there were no visuals noted, I certainly would not choose to drive. Somehow this does more to the body than to the head. I feel that the effects are waning at maybe the sixth hour, but there is a very strong body memory that makes sleeping difficult. Finally, at sometime after midnight and with the help of a glass of wine, some sleep.”
(with 125 mg) “There was a steady climb to a +++ over the first couple of hours. So far, the body has been quite peaceful without any strong energy push or stomach problems, although my tummy insists on being treated with quiet respect, perhaps out of habit, perhaps not. At the fifth hour, the body energy is quite strong, and I have the choice of focusing it into some activity, such as love-making or writing, or having to deal with tapping toes and floor-pacing. For a novice this would be a murderously difficult experience. Too much energy, too long a time. I suppose I could get used to it, but let me judge by when I get to sleep, and just what kind of sleep it is. It turned out that sleep was OK, but for the next couple of days there was a continuing awareness of some residue in the body—some kind of low-level poisoning. I feel in general that there is not the excitement or creativity to connect with, certainly not enough to justify the cost to the body.”
EXTENSIONS AND COMMENTARY: The three-carbon analog of 2C-T-9 (this would be one of the
The lithiated dimethoxybenzene reaction with 2,2-dipyridyl disulfide produced 2,5-dimethoxyphenyl 2-pyridyl sulfide which distilled at 135–150 °C at 0.4 mm/Hg and could be recrystallized from cyclohexane containing 2% EtOH to give a product that melted at 66–67.5 °C. Anal. (C13H13NO2S) C,H. This would have produced 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(2-pyridylthio)phenethylamine (
The same reaction with di-(4-bromophenyl) disulfide produced 2,5-dimethoxyphenyl 4-bromophenyl sulfide which distilled at 150–170 °C at 0.5 mm/Hg and could be recrystallized from MeOH to give a product that melted at 72–73 °C. Anal. (C14H13BrO2S) C,H. This was being directed towards 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(4-bromophenylthio)phenethylamine (
The same reaction with N,N-dimorpholinyl disulfide produced virtually no product at all, completely defusing any plans for the synthesis of a novel sulfur-nitrogen bonded base 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(1-morpholinothio)phenethylamine (
13 May 2016 · · Isomer Design
About PiHKAL · info
This version of Book II of PiHKAL is based on the Erowid online version, originally transcribed by Simson Garfinkle and converted into HTML by Lamont Granquist. I drew also on “Tyrone Slothrop’s” (Unfinished) Review of PIHKAL to enumerate the many analogues mentioned in PiHKAL but not described at length. Many, many others have since been added.
I have tried here to expunge any artifacts introduced by the earlier transcriptions and restore the typographic niceties found in the printed edition. I’ve also made minor changes to some chemical names in line with current nomenclature practice. Typically the change is little more than expanding a prefix or setting it in italics. The history page has further details.
“At the present time, restrictive laws are in force in the United States and it is very difficult for researchers to abide by the regulations which govern efforts to obtain legal approval to do work with these compounds in human beings.“No one who is lacking legal authorization should attempt the synthesis of any of the compounds described in these files, with the intent to give them to man. To do so is to risk legal action which might lead to the tragic ruination of a life. It should also be noted that any person anywhere who experiments on himself, or on another human being, with any of the drugs described herein, without being familiar with that drug’s action and aware of the physical and/or mental disturbance or harm it might cause, is acting irresponsibly and immorally, whether or not he is doing so within the bounds of the law.”
The copyright for Book I of PiHKAL has been reserved in all forms and it may not be distributed. Book II of PiHKAL may be distributed for non-commercial reproduction provided that the introductory information, copyright notice, cautionary notice and ordering information remain attached.
PiHKAL is the extraordinary record of the authors’ years exploring the chemistry and transformational power of phenethylamines. This book belongs in the library of anyone seeking a rational, enlightened and candid perspective on psychedelic drugs.
Though Sasha and Ann have put Book II of PiHKAL in the public domain, available to anyone, I strongly encourage you to buy a copy. We owe them — and there’s still nothing quite like holding a real book in your hands.
PiHKAL (ISBN 0-9630096-0-5) is available for US$24.50 (plus $10 domestic first-class shipping) from Transform Press.Transform Press,
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