Harman, 7-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro · Harmine, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro · β-Carboline, 7-methoxy-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro · 7-Methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroharman · 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroharmine · 7-Methoxy-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline · 7-MeO-THH · Leptaflorine
SYNTHESIS: A stirred solution of 1.0 g 2O was covered with a pad of Argon, and there was added 0.1 g PtO2 followed by the dropwise addition of 0.4 g NaBH4 in 4.0 mL H2O over the course of 20 min. The pH was determined periodically and the reaction mixture was kept acidic during this period by the addition of 1 N HCl as needed. The catalyst was removed by filtration through paper with H2O washing, and the pale yellow filtrate made basic with the addition of aqueous NaOH. The cloudy basic suspension was extracted with 4×25 mL CH2Cl2, these extracts were pooled, and the solvent removed under vacuum. There was thus obtained 0.88 g of crude tetrahydroharmine as a white solid. A 0.25 g sample was recrystallized from MeOH to give a reference sample as white crystals with a mp 187–190 °C, IR (in cm-1): 804, 902, 922, 943, 1036, 1157. MS (in m/z): 201 (100%); parent ion 216 (33%); 172 (20%). The remaining crude sample (0.60 g) was dissolved in 12 g IPA and treated with 8 drops of concentrated HCl (acidic to external pH paper) and allowed to stand for a day. There was deposited crystals which were removed by filtration, lightly washed with IPA, and dried at 100 °C to give tetrahydroharmine hydrochloride 0.53 g (75%) as fine solids a fine solid, with a greenish tinge, mp 232–234 °C. IR (in cm-1): 789, 804, 816, 838, 1033, 1160.
DOSAGE: 300 mg, orally
QUALITATIVE COMMENTS: (with 300 mg, orally) “At this dosage level there were subjective effects similar to what I had experienced with 100 milligrams of
EXTENSIONS AND COMMENTARY: This one comment is the sum total of what I can find in the literature concerning the human activity of tetrahydroharmine. It was a study done with the synthetic racemate, whereas the natural isolate is the dextrorotatory isomer. It was a single trial. It was carried out in a single volunteer. There is no information given as what this person’s response had been to 100 milligrams Peganum harmala, and has been reported as being present in level equal to those of harmine in the analyses of ayahusaca ayahuasca samples (where harmaline itself is usually present in rather small amounts). And it is an effective monoamineoxidase inhibitor. The material is easily synthesized and it should not be difficult to resolve it into its optically opposite forms. Clinical studies would be extremely informative. In balance, the psychopharmacological activity of this plant isolate must be accepted as being essentially unknown.
The first isolation of tetrahydroharmine from the botanical world has an interesting story attached to it. The major alkaloid known to be in Banisteriopsis caapi (back in 1920’s when the Genus was still called Banisteria) was D +32°) but it had an identical infra-red spectrum, an identical melting point, and no depression with a mixed melting point. There are precious few optical isomers and racemates that can make that claim.
There are a number of other plants that are known to contain tetrahydroharmine and to have been used in various native preparations. I have recently learned of analysis of an Ayahuasca brew that had used the plant Calliandra pentandra as a component, instead of the usual Psychotria viridis. Ott’s magnificent compendium Pharmacotheon makes mention of a Calliandra augustifolia as a component of ayahuasca, but there is no mention of this pentandra species. The preliminary analysis that I have been given of this decoction is that a component that had initially appeared to be
More studies on tetrahydroharmine are absolutely imperative.
About TiHKAL · info
This version of Book II of TiHKAL is based on the Erowid online version created by Bo Lawler with the help of Erowid, from content generously provided in electronic format by the Authors.
The Erowid online version does not always align precisely with the printed version. Text appears to have been inserted, deleted, or changed at various points. Where the two are seen to diverge both the Erowid and print versions are given. Sharp-eyed readers are encouraged to report novel discrepancies.
As with PiHKAL, I’ve again attempted to reproduce the typographic style of the printed edition. I’ve again made minor changes to some chemical names in line with current nomenclature practice. Typically the change is little more than expanding a prefix or setting it in italics. The history page has further details.
“At the present time, restrictive laws are in force in the United States and it is very difficult for researchers to abide by the regulations which govern efforts to obtain legal approval to do work with these compounds in human beings.“No one who is lacking legal authorization should attempt the synthesis of any of the compounds described in these files, with the intent to give them to man. To do so is to risk legal action which might lead to the tragic ruination of a life. It should also be noted that any person anywhere who experiments on himself, or on another human being, with any of the drugs described herein, without being familiar with that drug’s action and aware of the physical and/or mental disturbance or harm it might cause, is acting irresponsibly and immorally, whether or not he is doing so within the bounds of the law.”
The copyright for Book I of TiHKAL has been reserved in all forms and it may not be distributed. Book II of TiHKAL may be distributed for non-commercial reproduction provided that the introductory information, copyright notice, cautionary notice and ordering information remain attached.
TiHKAL is the extraordinary record of the authors’ years exploring the chemistry and transformational power of tryptamines. This book belongs in the library of anyone seeking a rational, enlightened and candid perspective on psychedelic drugs.
Though Sasha and Ann have put Book II of TiHKAL in the public domain, available to anyone, I strongly encourage you to buy a copy. We owe them — and there’s still nothing quite like holding a real book in your hands.
TiHKAL (ISBN 0-9630096-9-9) is available for US$24.50 (plus $10 domestic first-class shipping) from Transform Press.Transform Press,
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