SYNTHESIS: A solution of 13.3 g 3,4-diethoxyphenol (see the recipe for 2O, made strongly basic by the addition of 10% NaOH, and extracted with 3×150 mL CH2Cl2. The solvent was removed from the pooled extracts under vacuum giving a residue of 9.1 g 1,2,4-triethoxybenzene that solidified to a crystalline mass. The mp was 28.5–29.5 °C, but the infra-red analysis showed the presence of unreacted phenol. The CH2Cl2 solution was again washed thoroughly with 10% NaOH and, after removal of the solvent, the solidified residue weighed 6.0 g and appeared free of impurities. The mp of this sample was 33–34 °C.
To a mixture of 10.5 g N-methyl formanilide and 11.9 g POCl3 that had incubated at room temperature for 0.5 h (it had become quite red in color) there was added 6.4 g of the solid ether, 1,2,4-triethoxybenzene. The mixture was heated on the steam bath for 2.5 h, then poured into 500 mL of shaved ice. After a few minutes stirring, crystals appeared. The reaction was allowed to stand for a few h, then filtered and sucked as dry as possible. The damp 14.4 g of slate-green crude solids were dissolved in 30 mL boiling MeOH, and allowed to cool to room temperature overnight. Filtration of the cream-colored product, and air drying, gave 6.1 g of 2,4,5-triethoxybenzaldehyde with a mp of 94–95 °C. A solution containing 0.5 g of this aldehyde and 0.4 g malononitrile in 7 mL absolute EtOH was treated with three drops of triethylamine. There was an immediate formation of granular yellow crystals of 2,4,5-triethoxybenzalmalononitrile which, on filtering and air drying, weighed 0.4 g and had a mp of 169–170 °C.
A solution of 5.0 g 2,4,5-triethoxybenzaldehyde and 2.6 g nitroethane in 14.8 g glacial acetic acid was treated with 1.6 g anhydrous ammonium acetate and heated on the steam bath for 2 h. The addition of an equal volume of H2O gave a slightly turbid solution which, upon the administration of a small amount of externally developed seed, smoothly set up as orange crystals as the reaction mix returned to room temperature. The product was removed by filtration, washed with a little 50% acetic acid, and allowed to air dry to constant weight. There was thus obtained 2.5 g of fluffy yellow-orange (almost yellow) crystals of 2-nitro-1-(2,4,5-triethoxyphenyl)propene with a mp of 91–92.5 °C. Anal. (C15H21NO5) C,H.
To a gently refluxing suspension of 1.7 g LAH in 200 mL anhydrous Et2O under a He atmosphere, there was added 2.5 g 2-nitro-1-(2,4,5-triethoxyphenyl)propene by allowing the condensing Et2O to drip into a shunted Soxhlet thimble containing the nitrostyrene, thus effectively adding a warm saturated solution of the nitrostyrene dropwise. Refluxing was maintained for 5 h, and then the reaction mixture was cooled with an external ice bath. The excess hydride was destroyed by the cautious addition of 300 mL 1.5 N H2SO4. When the aqueous and Et2O layers were finally clear, they were separated, and 50 g of potassium sodium tartrate were dissolved in the aqueous fraction. Aqueous NaOH was then added until the pH was above 9, and this was extracted with 3×200 mL CH2Cl2. Removal of the solvent under vacuum produced an amber oil that was dissolved in anhydrous Et2O and saturated with anhydrous HCl gas. After a few min delay, there commenced the separation of fine white crystals of 2,4,5-triethoxyamphetamine hydrochloride, (EEE). These weighed, after filtration, Et2O washing, and air drying to constant weight, 1.75 g and had a mp of 167–168 °C, with prior softening at 162 °C. Anal. (C15H26ClNO3) C,H,N.
EXTENSIONS AND COMMENTARY: This amphetamine, the final item on the ethoxy homologue of
And there were two true treasures that came out of it all. The compound
13 May 2016 · · Isomer Design
About PiHKAL · info
This version of Book II of PiHKAL is based on the Erowid online version, originally transcribed by Simson Garfinkle and converted into HTML by Lamont Granquist. I drew also on “Tyrone Slothrop’s” (Unfinished) Review of PIHKAL to enumerate the many analogues mentioned in PiHKAL but not described at length. Many, many others have since been added.
I have tried here to expunge any artifacts introduced by the earlier transcriptions and restore the typographic niceties found in the printed edition. I’ve also made minor changes to some chemical names in line with current nomenclature practice. Typically the change is little more than expanding a prefix or setting it in italics. The history page has further details.
“At the present time, restrictive laws are in force in the United States and it is very difficult for researchers to abide by the regulations which govern efforts to obtain legal approval to do work with these compounds in human beings.“No one who is lacking legal authorization should attempt the synthesis of any of the compounds described in these files, with the intent to give them to man. To do so is to risk legal action which might lead to the tragic ruination of a life. It should also be noted that any person anywhere who experiments on himself, or on another human being, with any of the drugs described herein, without being familiar with that drug’s action and aware of the physical and/or mental disturbance or harm it might cause, is acting irresponsibly and immorally, whether or not he is doing so within the bounds of the law.”
The copyright for Book I of PiHKAL has been reserved in all forms and it may not be distributed. Book II of PiHKAL may be distributed for non-commercial reproduction provided that the introductory information, copyright notice, cautionary notice and ordering information remain attached.
PiHKAL is the extraordinary record of the authors’ years exploring the chemistry and transformational power of phenethylamines. This book belongs in the library of anyone seeking a rational, enlightened and candid perspective on psychedelic drugs.
Though Sasha and Ann have put Book II of PiHKAL in the public domain, available to anyone, I strongly encourage you to buy a copy. We owe them — and there’s still nothing quite like holding a real book in your hands.
PiHKAL (ISBN 0-9630096-0-5) is available for US$24.50 (plus $10 domestic first-class shipping) from Transform Press.Transform Press,
Berkeley, CA 94701
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