SYNTHESIS: To a solution of 10 g 2,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in 50 mL nitroethane there was added 0.5 g anhydrous ammonium acetate, and the mixture was heated on the steam bath for 2 h. The excess solvent/reagent was removed under vacuum, and the residue oil dissolved in 25 mL boiling MeOH. On cooling, this deposited yellow crystals of 1-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-nitropropene that, after filtering, MeOH washing, and air drying, weighed 10.2 g and had a mp of 78–79 °C.
A magnetically stirred suspension of 6.0 g LAH in 300 mL anhydrous Et2O was brought up to a gentle reflux under a He atmosphere. A total of 8.5 g 1-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-nitropropene was introduced into the reaction mixture by allowing the condensed Et2O to leach it from a modified Soxhlet condenser. After the addition was complete, the reaction was held at reflux for an additional 24 h. After cooling with an external ice bath, the excess hydride was destroyed by the cautious addition of H2O. When the exothermic reaction had subsided, there was added 500 mL H2O, 150 g potassium sodium tartrate, and sufficient base to bring the pH above 9. The phases were separated, the organic phase dried over anhydrous MgSO4, the drying agent removed by filtration, and the clear filtrate then saturated with anhydrous HCl gas to produce white crystals of 2,4-dimethoxyamphetamine hydrochloride (2,4-DMA) with a mp of 146–147 °C.
DOSAGE: greater than 60 mg.
QUALITATIVE COMMENTS: (with 60 mg) “This is definitely threshold, or even a bit more. There is a lot of amphetamine-like component, and a certain blush of euphoria. There is also a diffusion of association, so it’s more than just amphetamine, no question about it. At the three-hour point, it is definitely quieting down.”
EXTENSIONS AND COMMENTARY: What can one say as to the active dosage of 2,4-DMA? Nothing. What can one say as to the duration? Probably short. The 60 milligram report given above is the highest level that I personally know of having been tried in man, and there is no hint as to what might be found at a fully active dose, or just where that dose might be. It might be fully speedy. It might be fully psychedelic. It might give a cardiovascular push that would be scary. Studies of 2,4-DMA on vascular strips (associated with
The meta-orientation of the two methoxyl groups does, however, greatly increase the susceptibility of the aromatic ring to electrophilic attack. This is one of the three possible meta-dimethoxy substituted amphetamines, and it is the best studied one in the pursuit of potential radio-halogen substituted brain blood-flow agents. This strategy is discussed under
The homologues of 2,4-DMA that were iodinated (or occasionally fluorinated) were mono- or di-alkylated on the nitrogen, and the precursor that was common to all was the corresponding acetone. The above nitrostyrene, 1-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-nitropropene, was reduced in acetic acid with elemental iron, and the base-washed extracts stripped of solvent and distilled (125–145 °C at 0.5 mm/Hg) to give 2,4-dimethoxyphenylacetone as a water-white oil. The principal reductive amination product of this, the one that was most thoroughly explored with various halogenation schemes, was obtained by the reaction of 2,4-dimethoxyphenylacetone with dimethylamine and sodium cyanoborohydride. This product, 2,4-dimethoxy-N,N-dimethylamphetamine or
A large family of other N-substituted homologues of 2,4-DMA were similarly prepared from the above ketone and sodium cyanoborohydride. Methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, isopropylamine and hexylamine gave the corresponding N-alkyl homologues . The N,N-diethyl homologue was made from the primary amine, 2,4-DMA itself, with acetaldehyde and sodium cyanoborohydride but the product,
Yet another variation on these structures was launched, again with the design of making radio-iodination targets which are not psychedelic and thus might be useful clinically. In this variation, the nitrogen atom substitution pattern was held constant, with two methyl groups, as were the ring locations of the two oxygen atoms. But the identities of the alkyl groups on these oxygen atoms were varied. The synthetic procedure followed was to make the appropriate 2,4-dialkoxybenzaldehyde, convert it to the nitrostyrene with nitroethane, reduce this to the phenylacetone with elemental iron, and then reductively aminate this ketone with dimethylamine. Following this reaction scheme, five amphetamine homologues of 2,4-DMA were made, three with the 4-methoxy group maintained but the 2-position extended, and two with both groups extended symmetrically. These are: (1)
There is something vaguely counterproductive, in my evaluation of things, when the goal of a research project is to avoid activity rather than to create it. Although this chemistry was completely fascinating and could have produced the world’s best positron-emitting, brain-scanning diagnostic compound, I feel it quite unlikely that it would have produced the world’s best insight-revealing, empathy-enhancing psychedelic, so this research direction never totally caught my fancy. I went on to other things.
About PiHKAL · info
This version of Book II of PiHKAL is based on the Erowid online version, originally transcribed by Simson Garfinkle and converted into HTML by Lamont Granquist. I drew also on “Tyrone Slothrop’s” (Unfinished) Review of PIHKAL to enumerate the many analogues mentioned in PiHKAL but not described at length. Many, many others have since been added.
I have tried here to expunge any artifacts introduced by the earlier transcriptions and restore the typographic niceties found in the printed edition. I’ve also made minor changes to some chemical names in line with current nomenclature practice. Typically the change is little more than expanding a prefix or setting it in italics. The history page has further details.
“At the present time, restrictive laws are in force in the United States and it is very difficult for researchers to abide by the regulations which govern efforts to obtain legal approval to do work with these compounds in human beings.“No one who is lacking legal authorization should attempt the synthesis of any of the compounds described in these files, with the intent to give them to man. To do so is to risk legal action which might lead to the tragic ruination of a life. It should also be noted that any person anywhere who experiments on himself, or on another human being, with any of the drugs described herein, without being familiar with that drug’s action and aware of the physical and/or mental disturbance or harm it might cause, is acting irresponsibly and immorally, whether or not he is doing so within the bounds of the law.”
The copyright for Book I of PiHKAL has been reserved in all forms and it may not be distributed. Book II of PiHKAL may be distributed for non-commercial reproduction provided that the introductory information, copyright notice, cautionary notice and ordering information remain attached.
PiHKAL is the extraordinary record of the authors’ years exploring the chemistry and transformational power of phenethylamines. This book belongs in the library of anyone seeking a rational, enlightened and candid perspective on psychedelic drugs.
Though Sasha and Ann have put Book II of PiHKAL in the public domain, available to anyone, I strongly encourage you to buy a copy. We owe them — and there’s still nothing quite like holding a real book in your hands.
PiHKAL (ISBN 0-9630096-0-5) is available for US$24.50 (plus $10 domestic first-class shipping) from Transform Press.Transform Press,
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