SYNTHESIS: A solution of 268 g 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and 212 g allyl bromide in 700 mL dry acetone was treated with 315 g anhydrous K2CO3 and held at reflux for 16 h. The solvent was removed under vacuum, and the residue dissolved in H2O and extracted with 3×100 mL CH2Cl2. The pooled extracts were washed with 5% NaOH, then with H2O, and the solvent removed under vacuum. The residue, which weighed 245 g, was stirred and heated in an oil bath to 230 °C at which point an exothermic reaction set in. The heating was maintained at 230 °C for 0.5 h, and then the reaction mixture distilled. There was obtained a total of 127 g of 5-allyl-1,3-dimethoxy-2-hydroxybenzene as a colorless distillate, that was identical in all respects to natural
A solution containing 40.4 g 2O, and extracted with 2×200 mL CH2Cl2. Removal of the solvent under vacuum gave 35.6 g of crude 2-benzyloxy-1,3-dimethoxy-5-propenylbenzene.
To a stirred, ice-cold solution of 33.6 g of the above impure 2-benzyloxy-1,3-dimethoxy-5-propenylbenzene and 13.6 g pyridine in 142 mL acetone, there was added 24.6 g tetranitromethane. After stirring for 3 min, there was added a solution of 7.9 g KOH in 132 mL H2O, followed by additional H2O. The oily phase that remained was H2O washed, and then diluted with an equal volume of MeOH. This slowly set up to yellow crystals, which were removed by filtration and washed sparingly with MeOH. There was obtained 9.2 g 1-(4-benzyloxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-nitropropene with a mp of 84–85 °C. An analytical sample, from EtOH, had a mp of 86–87 °C.
To a refluxing suspension of 5.5 g LAH in 360 mL anhydrous Et2O under an inert atmosphere, there was added 8.6 g 1-(4-benzyloxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-nitropropene by letting the condensing Et2O leach out a saturated solution from a modified Soxhlet condenser. The addition took 1.5 h and the refluxing was maintained for an additional 4 h. After cooling, the excess hydride was destroyed by the cautious addition of 330 mL of 1.5 N H2SO4. The aqueous phase was heated up to 80 °C, filtered through paper to remove a small amount of insoluble material, and treated with a solution of 8 g picric acid in 150 mL boiling EtOH. Cooling in the ice chest overnight gave globs of the amine picrate, but no clear signs of crystallization. These were washed with cold H2O, then dissolved in 5% NaOH to give a bright yellow solution. This was extracted with 3×150 mL CH2Cl2, the solvent removed under vacuum, the residue dissolved in 300 mL anhydrous Et2O, freed from a little particulate material by filtration through paper, and then saturated with hydrogen chloride gas. There was thus obtained, after filtering, Et2O washing and air drying, 2.5 g 4-benzyloxy-3,5-dimethoxyamphetamine hydrochloride (3C-BZ) as a white solid with a mp of 161–164 °C.
DOSAGE: 25–200 mg.
DURATION: 18–24 h.
QUALITATIVE COMMENTS: (with 25 mg) I went into an emotionally brittle place, and for a while I was uncomfortable with childhood reminiscences. The seeing of my family’s Christmas tree in my mind was almost too much. I cried.
(with 50 mg) The action is distinct—wakeful—alerting and wound up. Hypnogogic imagery, and I could not sleep at night with my mind doing many uncontrolled, tangential, busy things. I had fleeting nausea early in the process.
(with 100 mg) I took this in two portions. Following 50 milligrams I was aware of a slight light-headedness at a half-hour, but there was little else. At 1 1/2 hours, I took the second 50 milligrams and the augmentation of effects was noted in another half hour. The experience quietly built up to about the fifth hour, with some erotic fantasy and suggestions of changes in the visual field. I could not sleep until the twelfth hour, and my dreams were wild and not too friendly. There was no body threat from this, but I was not completely baseline until the next day. I am not too keen to do this again—it lasts too long.
(with 100 mg) No effects.
(with 150 mg) This is in every way identical to 100 micrograms of
(with 180 mg) I can compare this directly to
EXTENSIONS AND COMMENTARY: Two points are worthy of commentary; the potency and the promise of 3C-BZ.
As to potency, there is such uncertainty as to the effective dose, that it is for all intents and purposes impossible to predict just what dose should be considered for a person’s first time with this. The choice of quotations was made with the intention of giving a picture of this scatter. A total of ten subjects have explored this compound, and the very broad range given above, 25 to 200 milligrams, reflects the degree of variation that has been encountered.
Which is a shame, because the concept of a new ring such as is found here on the 4-position would have allowed an extremely wide array of substituents. Electron-rich things, electron-poor things, heavy things, light things, and on and on. This could have been a location of much variation, but it is a possibility that the uncertainties of dosage might extrapolate to these novel ring substitutions as well. Only a single variation was made, the 4-fluorobenzyl analogue. This was prepared following exactly the procedure given here for 3C-BZ, except for the replacement of benzyl chloride with 4-fluorobenzyl chloride. The allyl intermediate was an oil, but the propenyl isomer gave solids with a melting point of 59–60 °C from hexane. The nitrostyrene was a yellow crystalline solid from methanol with a melting point of 98–99 °C. The end product, 3,5-dimethoxy-4-(4-fluorobenzyloxy)amphetamine hydrochloride (
About PiHKAL · info
This version of Book II of PiHKAL is based on the Erowid online version, originally transcribed by Simson Garfinkle and converted into HTML by Lamont Granquist. I drew also on “Tyrone Slothrop’s” (Unfinished) Review of PIHKAL to enumerate the many analogues mentioned in PiHKAL but not described at length. Many, many others have since been added.
I have tried here to expunge any artifacts introduced by the earlier transcriptions and restore the typographic niceties found in the printed edition. I’ve also made minor changes to some chemical names in line with current nomenclature practice. Typically the change is little more than expanding a prefix or setting it in italics. The history page has further details.
“At the present time, restrictive laws are in force in the United States and it is very difficult for researchers to abide by the regulations which govern efforts to obtain legal approval to do work with these compounds in human beings.“No one who is lacking legal authorization should attempt the synthesis of any of the compounds described in these files, with the intent to give them to man. To do so is to risk legal action which might lead to the tragic ruination of a life. It should also be noted that any person anywhere who experiments on himself, or on another human being, with any of the drugs described herein, without being familiar with that drug’s action and aware of the physical and/or mental disturbance or harm it might cause, is acting irresponsibly and immorally, whether or not he is doing so within the bounds of the law.”
The copyright for Book I of PiHKAL has been reserved in all forms and it may not be distributed. Book II of PiHKAL may be distributed for non-commercial reproduction provided that the introductory information, copyright notice, cautionary notice and ordering information remain attached.
PiHKAL is the extraordinary record of the authors’ years exploring the chemistry and transformational power of phenethylamines. This book belongs in the library of anyone seeking a rational, enlightened and candid perspective on psychedelic drugs.
Though Sasha and Ann have put Book II of PiHKAL in the public domain, available to anyone, I strongly encourage you to buy a copy. We owe them — and there’s still nothing quite like holding a real book in your hands.
PiHKAL (ISBN 0-9630096-0-5) is available for US$24.50 (plus $10 domestic first-class shipping) from Transform Press.Transform Press,
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